What about the orphaned block probability?

I had some orphaned blocks these days, so what probability will a PoS block orphaned right now in Nu system?

BTW, I can’t find the orphaned blocks in the block explorer.

I just upgraded to V0.4.4, so I started it for minting, and there was also a V0.4.2 client minting on the other computer at the same time with my wallets. I got 3 blocks in 3 hours and they are all orphaned. I’m wondering it is caused by the those two different clients. What’s the main difference between V0.4.4 and V0.4.2?

You are minting on two different clients using the same wallets at the same time?

Yes, each computer has one backup of my wallet.

It’s definitely not recommended to run two clients using the same addresses at the same time. The way that the protocol is designed is that it protects against nodes attempting to mint across multiple chains. When your clients are running, both of your clients will find a block at the same time with the same stake. If for some reason the blocks that you are solving are different for any reason—maybe one client has received notification of a transaction that the other one hasn’t yet received—then both blocks will be rejected when they are submitted and you’ll lose your block reward.

In the transactions list on your client, you would see the same “dashed line square” icon for a block that is rejected by the network that you would on a truly “orphaned” block (meaning that you sent it to the network but another block had already been accepted).

We’re going to look into improving this visually in the UI (differentiate the icons), but in the mean time you should be able to look in the debug.log file in your application directory to find instances where the block was rejected because it was submitted twice.

Does this help?

Thank you very much!

Yes, there are a lot of “dashed line square” although I just ran one client. I’m wondering why there are so many orphaned blocks. Is it because of my network lantency, or is there any possible problem in Nu software? There are not so many orphaned blocks in Peercoin chains if I’m right. 1 minute block interval? But Nxt and BTS systems seem to have no such big problem.

I will have a check debug.log file. BTW, how can we see the orphaned blocks/chain from blockexplorer? It’s expressed in blockchain.info for bitcoin.

I have check the log file from one computer. You are right. UI differentiation is a great idea. I think the usual dash line grey square blocks are true orphaned blocks, but during the period of minting on two computers at the same time the blocks were rejected because it was submitted twice. The log reads “ERROR: ProcessBlock() : duplicate proof-of-stake (COutPoint(***, **), ***) for block ***”

btw it seems that the orphan rate is increasing. Increased orphans

Can @sigmike or someone in the dev team confirm that Cancelling the best block when a duplicate stake is received has been implemented in Nu?

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Yes, sigmike and I designed this and it was first implemented in Nu version 0.4.0. The code to do this is in Peercoin comes from the Nu code repository.